The child born in the City of David

[Sermon audio here.]

If you want to convince someone to believe something, you need to start by proving that it is true.  When it comes to the Bible, the truth-claims could not be more staggering.  Arguably Matthew’s biggest burden in his gospel is to prove that Jesus is indeed the promised Messiah of the OT.  If Jesus does not fulfill the types and shadows and prophecies of the OT then he loses credibility as a candidate for the title, Son of God.  However, having knowledge that Jesus is Messiah is not enough to make a Christian.  Scripture is clear that this knowledge must also be coupled with affirmation of the truth as well as trust in Jesus as our Lord and Saviour from sin.  These are the components of true faith.

In our passage this morning, Matthew gives us another proof that Jesus of Nazareth is the Christ.  We have already seen from Jesus’ family tree that he has the required royal ancestry. He is a son of king David through the legal adoption of Joseph.  Now, in Matt. 2:1-12, Matthew shows us that Jesus is qualified as King of the Jews because he is born in the city of David, which is Bethlehem of Judea. We shall also see that there are other circumstances surrounding the birth of Jesus, which reveal his fulfillment of the OT Scriptures.  Whoever, despite all this evidence, king Herod and authorities of the church in his day rejected their Messiah.  And the unlikely wise men or magi from the east worshipped him.

You are about to hear the gospel of our Lord Jesus Christ.  How will you respond?

The birth of Jesus

No sooner does Matthew introduce the birth of Jesus into his gospel account than a rival king arrives on the scene called Herod.  Entering the stage as well, from the east, are three wise men or magi.  Here we have Herod and three magi with knowledge of Messiah and they want more, but for very different reasons.

At this point, you may be asking why Matthew overlooks so many of the details surrounding the birth of Jesus – like the manger, the shepherds and the angels – that Luke includes?  Why the differences between the various gospel accounts of the birth of Jesus?  The reason is that Matthew, Mark, Luke and John all have their God-inspired purposes for recording and not recording certain events in the life of Jesus.  While there is substantial agreement as to the life and message of Jesus, from time to time the gospels differ in form and content in order to convey certain theological truths.  Taken together the four gospels provide for us a rich multi-dimensional picture of the person and work of Jesus – which, by the working of the Holy Spirit produces and strengthens faith in us.

It should also, therefore, come as no surprise that Matthew, like the other evangelists, does not attempt to capture comprehensively all the facts surrounding the birth of Jesus.  An important lesson for us here is that we should not read the Bible like a history textbook or a science manual.  We should not expect precision or detail that it does not wish to offer.  Remember that Matthew’s burden is ultimately to record for us those events in the life of Jesus that disclose his identity and his mission as our redeemer.

Now getting back to story.  In verse 2 we read of “three wise men” that had come from the east and are asking: “Where is he who has been born king of the Jews?”  What are we to make of these so-called wise men that often appear on cards and in nativity scenes around the time of Christmas?  Well, it is a bit difficult to nail down exactly who they were.  What we do know is that they were not Jews.  And in fact, the Greek word used for them here is “magi”, which is where we get our word “magician” from.  In NT times, the word “magi” covered a wide range of meanings, from astronomers and fortunetellers to counselors and magicians.  Matthew most likely has astronomers in mind here.

But more important than whom exactly they are, is whom they are seeking out to worship. We are told that in their quest for Messiah, a star or some celestial body had guided them to Bethlehem.  Here too, Matthew does not give us much on the nature of this star.  Perhaps it was Haley’s Comet or a planetary conjunction or a supernova.  We don’t know because Matthew does not tell us.  And he himself, with his pre-scientific knowledge, probably did not know either. The point is that God supernaturally guided these foreign dignitaries to Jesus.

In verse 3, the attention shifts to our other figure in the story, which is king Herod or otherwise known as Herod the Great.  This is one of those figures that seems larger than life.  He was a man of boundless ambition, which was both a good and a bad thing.  After the Romans made him king of Judea, he earned a reputation for being the greatest builder in Jewish history.  Among his feats was finishing the Second Jewish Temple.  He is also known to have lowered taxes and helped the poor during times of famine.  However, Herod is better remembered for being a brutal man.  For example, his legendary paranoia over losing power and his personal insecurities drove him to execute in cold blood one of his wives and two of his sons; and not to mention a handful of so-called insubordinate rabbis and extended members of his family.

So, it is not odd then that when Herod heard about the birth of Jesus, verse 3, “he was troubled, and all of Jerusalem with him.”  Herod was distressed because Jesus is a threat to his throne.  This is confirmed for us in verse 16 where he orders that all male children of two years or younger be put to death.  Herod felt particularly vulnerable as king because he was not an ethnic Jew.  His father was an Idumean adventurer and his mother likely an Arabian.  Herod’s family had converted to Judaism and therefore he was not a blood-member of the royal house of Judah.

The fact that Matthew also tells us that “all of Jerusalem” was troubled as well is likely because they feared what violent reaction Herod might have to someone challenging his rule; and how that violence might have an effect on everyone around him.

So what does Herod do?  In verse 4 we are told that he assembled “the chief priests and the scribes of the people” and “inquired of them where the Christ was to be born.”  Basically, Herod looked to the church for help.  The scribes back then were the Bible scholars.  They should have been searching the Scriptures diligently for Messiah.  Matthew’s reference to the “chief priests” in the plural here is noteworthy because according to OT law there should only be one high priest in service to God.  He is the one who offered sacrifices to God on behalf of the sins of the people.  To have more than one priest is a blatant violation of God’s OT law.

Apparently, things are not all well with the church.  Magicians, instead of scribes, are searching for Jesus.  And the fact that there were multiple high priests is evidence that the church at the time of Herod was more concerned with social power and politics than being a covenant community governed by God’s Word and devoted to worship.

It is also interesting to note from Herod’s inquiry here that he does not call Jesus “King of the Jews”, like the magi do; but rather “Christ.”  This is because, for one, Herod believes himself to be the king of the Jews and is by no means ready to relinquish the title.  And second, Herod’s probing here has a theological purpose.  He wants confirmation that this child of Mary’s really is the Messiah.

One of the clues that Matthew gives is where he will be born.

Points of fulfillment

In verse 5, the magi answer Herod’s question by telling him that the Christ will be born in “Bethlehem of Judea” – which is a place of no little consequence in the OT. Knowing this, the chief priests and the scribes recall a prophecy by the OT minor prophet, Micah, from Micah 5:2 (as well as make a partial allusion to 2 Sam. 5:2): “And you, O Bethlehem, in the land of Judah, are by no means least among the rulers of Judah; for from you shall come a ruler who will shepherd the people of Israel.”

Now, if any of you know Micah 5:2 off by heart or are maybe looking at it right now, you will notice that Matthew takes some liberties in re-citing the words of the prophet.  Most obvious is that while Micah says that Bethlehem is “too little [or the smallest] among the clans of Judah,” Matthew says that Bethlehem is “by no means the least among the rulers of Judah.”

Is Matthew being careless with the Scriptures here?  Well, no, in fact he is doing something not uncommon to the NT’s use of the OT.  Remember the NT builds upon and is the fulfillment of the OT.  The NT succeeds and interprets the OT.  So, in our passage Matthew has changed the wording of Micah to emphasize progression in the unfolding of God’s plan of salvation.  Yes, Bethlehem of the tribe of Judah was once quite inconspicuous in the life of God’s OT people. But now it is the capital city because the glory of God’s Son has descended upon it!

What we have in Matthew 2:5-6 is the second of five fulfillment formulas in the gospel of Matthew so far, which testifies to Jesus as the prophesied Messiah of God.  In chapter 1, we saw that Jesus is a son of king David.  Now Matthew gives further proof that Jesus is Messiah as one born in the royal city of David – to fulfill Scripture.

But this is not the only line of OT fulfillment that Matthew connects in our passage.  There are others here as well, which magnify the unfolding of God’s saving acts in history and also highlight the God-given genius of Matthew.

For example, in 1 Kings 10:1-10, we read of the Queen of Sheba who heard about the great wisdom and fame of king Solomon, the son of David.  And in response, she along with her entourage of advisors – bearing extravagant gifts – paid a visit to Solomon to honor him.  In Matt. 12:42, Matthew declares that someone greater than Solomon is here.

And then there is the story of Balak, the pagan king of Moab, and his prophet or fortuneteller, Balaam, in the Num. 24.  Back then, Balak was concerned about the threat of the Israelites and he looked to Balaam for help.  And yet, Balaam was compelled to speak on behalf of God and even about the coming of Messiah. In Num. 24:17, he prophecies to Balaam: “I see him, but not now; I behold him, but not near: a star shall come up out of Jacob, and a scepter shall rise out of Israel; it shall crush the forehead of Moab and break down all the sons of Sheth.”

It is also by no means a stretch to draw parallels between Pharoah, king of Egypt, and Balak, and the brutally iron-fisted king Herod – the so-called king of the Jews.

The thing is, the high priests and the scribes should have been tracing these lines of fulfillment and seeking out the Messiah who is about to arrive in their backyard.  And yet it is the three foreigners from the east who are looking for Jesus.  So Herod turns to them for further help.

In verse 9, Herod commands the magi to go and seek diligently after news about the Messiah.  He asks them to bring news of his whereabouts so that he can “worship” Jesus.  But, here Herod is scheming.  Worshipping someone other than himself is really the furthest thing from his mind.

Nevertheless, the magi dutifully listen to the king.  And the same star that led them to Bethlehem now leads them to the manger of Jesus.  Matthew tells us in verse 10 that when they saw the star resting over the place of Christ’s birth, “they rejoiced exceedingly with great joy.” [p] It is difficult to capture the emotion expressed here.  The magnitude of their joy was extreme.  They were absolutely delighted or “thrilled to bits”!  When “they saw the child” they “fell down and worshipped him.”  And then they offered their gifts of the most expensive stuff around: “gold” – the symbol of ultimate wealth – “and frankincense and myrrh.”  These were gifts fitting for a king!

Points of departure

And then, verse 12, Matthew tells us about another act of divine intervention in the journey of the magi.  This time God speaks to them in a dream warning them “not to return to Herod.”  So, they bypassed the earthly king and “departed to their own country by another way.”

Why?  Because Herod is really a God-hater.  And he’ll soon prove it in a very nasty way…

Brothers and sisters, children, and friends, do you see the glorious tapestry that Matthew has woven for us here from the OT – which is Jesus our Saviour from sin?  Even though Mary and Joseph were in fact residents of off-the-beaten-track Nazareth, God saw to it that Jesus be born in Bethlehem in order to fulfill the Scriptures.  Jesus is Messiah because he was born in the city David as a son of David, and of Abraham and of God.  He, and not Herod, is the true King of the Jews.

The next time Matthew will use the title “King of the Jews” is when Jesus is nailed to a Roman cross.  The importance of him using it here, right at the beginning of the life of Jesus, is to certify that Jesus is indeed the anointed Son of God from his very conception and birth.  As we shall see as the gospel of Matthew unfolds, the entire life of our Savior has redeeming significance for us.

But friends, it is not enough to know about Jesus.  Herod and the corrupt church in his day knew about Messiah.  Yet they did not agree with the claims about him clearly set forth in Scripture.  And they did not submit to him as Lord and trust in him as Saviour.  Instead, they twisted God’s Word or just flat out ignored it for the sake of their own worldly agenda.  In the end, their own unbelief and rebellion against God drove them to crucify their King.

The greatest threat to Christ and his gospel has always come from within the church.

May we, therefore, take heed and not be like so many in the church of Herod’s day that lacked faith.  May we instead be like the magi in our story – some of the first Gentiles – who sought hard after Christ.  May we turn away from our sins and follow God’s Word – even the very Word you have heard right now, this morning – to your redeemer and King, Jesus.  And let us rejoice with joy inexpressible and full of glory!  And let us offer up our gifts of thanksgiving to him this day forth and forevermore.  Amen.

Simon Jooste, RCSS, 19 May 2013

God’s judgment and compassion (Deut. 32:26-44)

There are different kinds of pleasures in this life, and then there is what the Bible describes as joy.  Can you imagine the rush of pleasure that Adam felt when he ate of the forbidden fruit in the Garden of Eden?  For a moment, he must have felt like he ruled the world, and his destiny.  He thought he was God.  Then came the flood of guilt and fear that Adam and Eve felt as they found their sinful hearts naked and exposed in God’s presence.

Is it not true that God would have been perfectly just to judge Adam and Eve for their sin by putting them to death, and ending the world forever?  But God relented and had compassion on humankind – so that we might know the joy of eternal life.  And he did so ultimately for his own glory.

In the book of Deuteronomy, God’s people – Israel – are in a similar predicament to our father Adam in the Garden of Eden.  Like the first Adam, Israel is in a covenant relationship with God.  And like God’s covenant with Adam before humankind’s Fall into sin, God’s covenant with Israel at Mount Sinai is defined by a principle of works.  In other words, in God’s covenant with Israel set forth in Deuteronomy, he imposes certain obligations or conditions upon his people.  These conditions are found in God’s law summed up in the Ten Commandments.  If Israel obeys the law and is faithful to the covenant, she will be rewarded with a long life of blessing in the garden of Eden-like Promised Land.  However, if Israel disobeys and breaks the covenant, she will be cursed.

In the Song of Moses so far, God has revealed himself as Israel’s rock and refuge.  Thanks to God and his marvelous deeds, Israel has a history of glorious deliverance and preservation.  But, the Song has also served to expose Israel’s sin.  Why?  Because they have acted with gross ingratitude toward God and his gracious deeds towards them.  Israel has prostituted herself to gods who are no gods, in full view of God!  She is naked and shamefulLike Adam and Eve who were punished with banishment from the Garden of Eden, Israel will be exiled from the Promised Land and will endure the full barrage of God’s covenant curses.  We see the horror of these curses in Deut 28, and Moses repeats them in Deut 32.19-25So outraged is God, with righteous indignation, that he will not even spare the woman or the nursing child from the ravages of war, v25.


But does this mean that Israel has no hope or future with God?  Like Adam, she failed the test of obedience in the garden of the Promised Land.  But like Adam, Israel was not ultimately destroyed by God.  In Gen. 3:15, God promised Adam and his descendents life through the seed of the woman.  And then in Gen. 15-17, God reveals more of this salvation promise in his covenant with Abraham.  In the Abrahamic covenant or the covenant of grace, God makes an unconditional oath to redeem a people that will one day come from the physical descendents of Abraham and the nation of Israel.

Well, the Song of Moses is in keeping with this hope, in its third and final movement, in vv26-43.

In v26 of Deut. 32, the heat of God’s just anger has reached boiling point.  Moses writes: “I would have said, “I will cut them to pieces; I will wipe them from human memory.” But then the dramatic reversal.  God says: “I would have destroyed Israel, but I will not.”  Here, seemingly out of nowhere, the tempo of the song changes from one of judgment, to hope.  But how can this be?  How can Israel have a future beyond judgment?

Because: as was the case for Adam and Eve, God will act for the vindication of his name by saving Israel.  God will act for his glory!

You see, as the story goes, once Israel had enjoyed a period of time in the Promised Land, she was eventually driven out by God for her disobedience.  As punishment for her sins, she was defeated and owned by foreign enemy nations.

It was common in the Ancient Near East for the nation victorious in war to lay claim to the superiority of their gods: “we beat you in battle, so our gods are greater than yours.”  Knowing this, God will act for the glory and vindication of his name, by acting on behalf of his people.  God will act lest Israel’s enemies misunderstand, lest they think that by their power and might they have triumphed over God’s people, v27.

The folly of the nations in God’s hand

Think about it: what do pagan nations and unbelieving sinners trust in but their own self-sufficiency, based on pompous pride!  Vv28-29: they are “void of counsel and understanding.”  They should have known that their victory over Israel was due to God’s hand disciplining his people, and not their own strength!

This truth is the answer to the rhetorical question posed by God in v30 concerning how the pagan nations could have defeated Israel.  The fact is that enemy nations had victory over Israel because it was a divinely-enabled victory.  Only God, the Rock, could have “chased a thousand… and put ten thousand to flight.”  The world must know that even judgments against Israel occur by the hand of God and not ultimately by foolish and rebellious nations!  For, the rock of Assyria and Babylon is not like the Rock of Israel, v31.  For Moses writes that Israel’s enemies are deeply rooted in evil and self-deception, “from the vine of Sodom and the fields of Gomorrah”: bringing forthgrapes of poison” and wine as the “poison of serpents.

The enemy should have known better.  Their arrogance should have turned to trembling if they had realised their terrible state before God.  They should have known that their greatest evil was their enmity toward the people of God and therefore toward God himself.  For Holy God has not forgotten their sin and folly, v34.  Israel’s enemies may have triumphed in battle, but they will certainly not escape the “vengeance and recompense” of God.  God will execute his justice against them.  “Their foot will slip”; “for the day of their calamity is at hand, and their doom comes swiftly.”  Those who despise God and his people will surely perish.

From curse to blessing

In v36, Moses returns to God’s dealings with his people.  Here the chorus of joy begins to trumpet over the death march of God’s curses that has been so dominant in the Song of Moses so far.  This chorus is that God’s judgment upon his people is not the full story, but will be followed by blessing!  “The Lord will judge his people and have compassion on his servants…” Yes, God will most certainly judge Israel with the curses of the covenant.  If God is just, he must judge sin, to uphold his glory!

But look: God will also have compassion on his people!

However, only when Israel “sees that their power is gone.”  Only when they know they are as helpless as when God first found them: like an eagle finding her chick lings in the howling wilderness.  Only when Israel is exhausted and undone by the oppression of her enemies will God intervene.  Only when Israel has given up on the idols she worshipped vainly in exile.  Only when she comes face to face with nothing but sin, death, and hell – only then will God redeem his people.  Israel must first learn to sing the blues…

For God’s glory

Then Israel will see things as they truly areThrough the lessons of sorrow and repentance will they learn the hope and joy that is rooted God’s glory and his ways.  God speaks again in v39: “see now that I, even I, am he, and there is no god beside me; I kill and make alive; I wound and I heal; and there is none that can deliver out of my hand.”  Here God affirms that he is God.  There are not many gods, but one.  Yahweh, Israel’s God, is the one who “kills and makes alive.”  God identifies himself alone as the one in control.  He exercises the absolute sovereign right to judge the nations, and to judge Israel, but also to give Israel life.  God, and no one else, is the Savior of his people.  To God alone belong the glory of judgment, but also the glory of redeeming Israel from sin, death and hell.

This is the high note of the Song of Moses.  It is to remind Israel of their God: of what he has done for them and what he will do for them, even when they are sinking in the ocean of sin and covenant curses; even in exile under the oppression of enemy nations.

Salvation rooted in God’s oath-bound promise

No matter what their lot is in this life, Israel can always bank on the unshakeable promise of God spoken in vv40-43: which is to act for their good beyond judgment.  Notice that God does not say: “I will act if Israel performs, if she obeys, or if she keeps the law.”  No, rather God “lifts up his hand to heaven and swears” – he takes an oath with God as witness and by his own name – to act on Israel’s behalf!  Like a warrior readying for battle by brandishing his sword, God promises to act and “take vengeance on his adversaries and repay those who hate him”, v41V42, “I will make my arrows drunk with blood, and my sword shall devour flesh…”  Yes, God will meet out terrible judgment on those who reject him.  But for those who know their sin and turn to God for mercy, God will save.

This is the note of triumphant benediction upon which the Song of Moses ends in v43.  A Song so full of the blues and low notes now ends on a crescendo of hope and joy, one that will resound in heaven for all eternity!  “Rejoice with him, O heavens; bow down to him, all gods, for he avenges the blood of his children and takes vengeance on his adversaries.  He repays those who hate him and cleanses his people’s land.”

Brothers and sisters, children, do you know that we are singing the same music that Israel sang in the wilderness, in the Promised Land and in exile?  The difference, however, is that we have the complete hymnbook because God has acted finally in Jesus.  And we can read the music better by the power of the Holy Spirit.  You and I can “rejoice with joy that is inexpressible and filled with glory” (2 Cor. 9:15) because we share in the fulfillment of Israel’s hope, which is God’s promise to Abraham.  For in Jesus, God has promised to cleanse us of our sin and give us eternal life.

Beloved, do you hear the overall rhythm of this Song?  It is one that ultimately beats to God’s jealous pursuit of his own glory in saving a people for himself.  The central message of the Song of Witness is that God has acted in mercy to save sinners who cannot help themselves.

Has the law revealed to you your sin?  Have your sufferings in this life made you give up on trying to impress God with your own works?  Have you learned to sing the dirge of sorrow and repentance? 

Friends, let us be sure not to reject the one who calls us from heaven with a better message than the Israelites ever heard.  Let us be sure not to reject God’s promise of salvation that has come through a better covenant secured by Jesus.  For the writer to the Hebrews issues a stern warning in Heb 10 of greater punishment for those “who spurn the Son of God and profane the blood of the covenant by which they were sanctified, and have outraged the Spirit of grace.”  V30, “For we know him who said, ““Vengeance is mine; I will repay.”  And again, “The Lord will judge his people.”  It is a fearful thing to fall in to the hands of the living God.

In light of the fact that Scripture reveals God as both terrible judge and merciful redeemer, let us therefore turn away from the fleeting pleasures of sin and put our faith in Jesus.  Only then can we know true joy in this life: joy that flows from the hope of eternal life.  For Jesus was cursed for our sin.  Jesus was judged in our place.  And Jesus was raised from the dead so that we might have life eternal.  Amen.


Simon Jooste, RCSS morning service, March 24, 2013